Call for a Riot Unit to be establised in PNG Royal Constabulary

Papua New Guinea has seen a lot of unrest in the past. We cannot forget the Sandline Crises, the Land mobilization program that lead to 3 deaths of UPNG students in 2001 and the most recent would last few weeks that the UPNG students been injured and hospitalized.

Students are within their means to air their frustrations and even protests which is the democratic right of any citizen.

While the students and the general public have their rights, those who uphold the laws are also within their rights to managed the situation in controlled manner that does not violate any human rights.


What we have seen in so many cases in Papua New Guinea is, that our Police do not have the capacity, training and the skill sets necessary during riots. We have failed as a national to empower our police force to do their duty.

Here is a CALL NOW to the Prime Minister as part of his investigations and recommendations for a SPECIAL POLCE UNIT to be setup as a CROWN CONTROL UNIT….

Below should be some of the tactics use…..

I have copied and paste from a website with a link below…..


Riot Control Tactics

The tactics used to control riots in the past were very simple. The success was based on the fact that the police were almost always better armed than the rioters. The tactics they used basically consisted of forming a line and charging into the crowd. The police today are even better armed, but the techniques have advanced significantly and usually prevent the injuries that we have seen in the past.

When a riot is in full swing, police will arrange themselves in a square formation with a command team at the center. The command team is protected on all four sides by echelons of troops deployed in groups of 10 or 12 officers. There is also an arrest team at the center of the square.

This riot control unit is very mobile and can adapt quickly to changes in the mod or situation. If a threat suddenly appears in a different direction, the echelon facing that direction is designated the front of the unit. The entire team can change direction without a lot of reorganizing. The echelons can also cover each other when the team moves to take new positions. If a section is under attack, the whole team does not move together. One echelon moves while the others provide covering fire or an actual physical screen using riot shields. Then another echelon moves up into position.

This layout is not meant to be an impenetrable wall of police. Actually, the riot team leaves an escape route to let rioters run past. The officers can take a passive stance by spreading out and leaving a large opening between each officer. The crowd can then easily filter through them. If an overly violent person or group moves toward the officers, they can immediately close the gaps and form a tight line.

As the officers move forward into a crowd, they push at anyone who doesn’t respond to verbal requests to move away by. If they still refuse to move, the unit continues moving forward, but the front line opens up and passes around the protesters. Once the specific people are inside the square, the unit stops and the arrest team processes the rioters. The front line closes and the unit can continue moving.


Riot Control Technology

When crowd control units get ready to engage, the first thing required is protective gear. The full outfit typically consists of:


* Helmet with face shield

* Body armor

* Large body shield


The body shield and face shield are typically made of a material called Lexan. If thick enough, it can be bullet proof. But in this application, it basically protects against thrown objects or attacks with sticks and similar weapons.

The most basic offensive weapon a riot control officer has is a baton. These are usually between 24 and 42 inches long and are made of various materials. Expandable batons or expanding batons are also used because of their size when closed. They can fit into holsters and worn on the belt similar to handcuffs. There are also batons that are fashioned after stun guns and referrer to as stun batons. Most crowd control units use some type of baton instead of rifles because the presence of guns are likely to escalate any situation. If someone manages to take a gun away from an officer, the results could be disastrous.

If guns are being used, the police typically employ a variety of non-lethal rounds. Although these are not generally considered fatal rounds, anything fired from a gun has the potential to be deadly. But, they are trained to use these weapons in ways that minimize the risk of death or serious injury.

These rounds are commonly fired from a 40mm single shot or multi-round gun. They are similar to military grenade launchers.


Riot Control Rounds

Some of these non-lethal rounds include:

* Blunt-force rounds – These rounds cause pain when they strike, but they don’t penetrate the skin. They are often fired at the ground so the round skips off the pavement and strikes the rioters in the legs. Each round is filled with small discs. When officers skip the rounds off the ground in front of the crowd, they separate and tend to hit multiple rioters. It can cause a lot of pain, but has a lesser chance of doing damage as compared to a solid piece of the material. The objective is to cause enough pain to make the rioter comply with the officers.

* Bean Bag Round – These are square-shaped bean bags that have a long-range but they tend to be inaccurate. There are teardrop-shaped bean bag rounds with a tail that are geared toward accuracy.

* Sponge Round – Bullet-shaped round with a sponge tip. They are all-purpose with average range and accuracy.

* Stinger rounds – A Stinger round is loaded with small, rubber pellets that disperse on impact.

* Pepper ball rounds – A paint ball gun is slightly modified to fire pepper spray pellets instead of paint balls. When these strike someone, the severe burning sensation in the eyes and nose will incapacitate most people without doing permanent harm. When children or elderly people might be present in a crowd, the police can use water pellets instead. It still stings to get hit with water pellets and sometimes people are afraid they have actually been hit with pepper spray, so the crowd disperses.

* Aerosol grenades – These are metal canisters that are activated and thrown like regular grenades. They spray tear gas or pepper spray gas over a wide area. Officers rarely throw these directly into a crowd since it can increase panic. They typically use the gas to create a type of barricade to direct the crowd’s movements in a certain direction. A gas grenade might be thrown into the crowd if a particular group is extremely violent or attacking a single victim.

* Ferret rounds – Ferret rounds are made to penetrate windows or wooden barricades, where they can then deposit the gas. These are used to flush people out of barricades and other standoff situations.

* Dye rounds – Sponge rounds, ferret rounds and pepperball rounds can all be filled with marker dye. These are used to mark certain people in a crowd so that other officers can identify them or so that they can be caught later if they leave the scene. In a riot, the leaders are often tagged with marker-dye rounds so the arrest team can pick them up later.

* Gas rounds – These rounds are loaded with a gas that causes severe irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and even causes contact skin burns in some cases. These most commonly contain pepper spray or tear gas. Officers don’t like to use gas rounds, because they know they’re going to experience some of the effects of the gas themselves. Still, they wear gas masks and goggles to protect themselves in case the need arises.


Crowd Control Prevention

Today’s riot control units are not usually called riot squads anymore; they are crowd-management units. Rather than trying to beat the rioters in battle, the police just try to calm them down and get them to go home. The use even non-lethal force is a last resort.

The first step in crowd management is making sure a riot doesn’t happen in the first place. Although riots can erupt unexpectedly, they are frequently tied to a planned protest or organized demonstration. When the police think a situation could potentially get out of control, they contact the organizers of the protest ahead of time. They set up ground rules that the protesters are to follow and they designate a specific area for the event to take place. The police assign specially trained officers to monitor the event and to ensure that everyone stays safe. The police will only take action if the ground rules are broken.

If the officers disagree with the opinions of the protesters, they are still trained to maintain an unbiased attitude. The officers try not to look at the protesters as enemies. Instead, they recognize that the rioters are part of the same community that the police are entrusted to protect and serve. There is fine balancing act.

Even though police are trained to be polite, they are careful to not give off an impression of subservience. They have to be seen as being in charge and in control at all times, even while they stay passive and allow the crowd to operate within the ground rules set out ahead of time. Occasionally these preventative measures don’t work and a riot breaks out despite police efforts to keep everyone peaceful.


Crowd Control Conflict

If a crowd gets disorderly and starts taking violent action, the police will switch to a more aggressive approach. They understand that most riots are lead by a few individuals who feel strongly or have something to gain from a violent confrontation. The majority of the people are present either because something exciting is going on or they are simply bystanders that get caught up in the mob mentality. The likelihood of arrest or confrontation with police usually prompt them to escape and go home.

The first step is simple intimidation. Riot police stand in strict formations and act with military precision. Once they form the lines of barriers, they tap their batons on their shields or stomp their feet in unison. The result can be quite intimidating to unarmed civilians. It can appear that the group is getting ready to attack. In reality, this display is meant to scare off as many of the rioters as possible without the officers ever getting near them.

Police do not try to arrest every person in the riot. Their first targets are those who are leading the riot because the crowd will often disperse without their leaders encouraging them. Everyone seen breaking a law are also targeted for arrest, especially if they injure someone.

When the officers are actually in conflict with the rioters, the objective is still to disperse the crowd. A combination of advancing lines of officers and the use of gas is used to move the crowd in a particular direction. The crowd is never pinned down and always given an escape route. The main purpose of the crowd management team is to get the people to disperse.



Demystifying the UBS Loan

by Government Insider

UBS Loan has been in the center of the discussion in Papua New Guinea politics and even everyday discussion since the O’Neil-Dion Government took it out in March 2014.

In my previous article on IPIC and the reason for USB Loan, I have given an account on why it as necessary for another loan to be taken in order for Papua New Guinea to safeguard its interest with Oil Search.

The USB Loan has been misunderstood by a lot of commentators and even social media has taken it into a level where it has been dissected incorrectly and is causing uncertainty to the readers. This article is to clear the muddy waters for all and hopefully once and for all.

The USB Loan is NOT just like another ordinary loan. It is a financial package put together to achieve the objectives of the Government of the day. The financial package of AUD1.235 Billon comprises two different facilities;

  1. AUD $ 900.4 million COLLAR LOAN at an interest of 4.95% per annum
  2. AUD $ 335 million BRIDGING LOAN facility at an interest of 5.50% per annum

The Collar Loan is collateralized by selling the 137 million (137, 012, 250) Oil Search shares at the maturity loan for $.7.40 per share even if the price falls below that rate. The maturity date for the Collar Loan is May 2016. This Collar Loan is issued to UBS and held in trust for PNG Government.

The Bridge Loan is to finance the State’s DIRECT shareholding of 12 million (12, 377,994) Oil Search shares, which is under the PNG Government’s own named. This is a straight forward loan facility which the PNG Government

The Collar Loan facility is the more complicated of the to facilities and I would like to spend some time to explain it.

According to Investopedia is “A collar is a protective options strategy that is implemented after a long position in a stock has experienced substantial gains. It is created by purchasing an out of the money put option while simultaneously writing an out of the money call option. ………

The purchase of out-of-the money put option is what protects the underlying shares from a large downward move and locks in the profit. The price paid to buy the puts is lowered by amount of premium that is collect by selling the out of the money call. The ultimate goal of this position is that the underlying stock continues to rise until the written strike is reached. 


Suppose an options trader is holding 100 shares of the stock XYZ currently trading at K48 in June. He decides to establish a collar by writing a JULSlide1 50 covered call for K2 while simultaneously purchases a JUL 45 put for K1.

Since he pays K4800 for the 100 shares of XYZ, another K100 for the put but receives K200 for selling the call option, his total investment is K4700.

On expiration date, the stock had rallied by 5 points to K53. Since the striking price of $50 for the call option is lower than the trading price of the stock, the call is assigned and the trader sells the shares for K5000, resulting in a K300 profit (K5000 minus K4700 original investment).

However, what happens should the stock price had gone down 5 points to K43 instead? Let’s take a look.

At K43, the call writer would have had incurred a paper loss of K500 for holding the 100 shares of XYZ but because of the JUL 45 protective put, he is able to sell his shares for K4500 instead of K4300. Thus, his net loss is limited to only K200 (K4500 minus K4700 original investment).

Had the stock price remain stable at K48 at expiration, he will still net a paper gain of K100 since he only paid a total of K4700 to acquire K4800 worth of stock.

In PNG Government Scenario:

UBS who is the Option Trader is holding 137 million shares of Oil Search for PNG Government. They have decided to write a COLLAR for MAY 2016 purchase at $8.20 per share. They purchased a PUT May 2016 at $7.40 per share.

During maturity in May 2016, the Oil Search share price was below $7.40, however, the PNG Government did not which to sell its shares and therefore, it made a “MARGINAL CALL.” Since the trading is a LONG collar, the maturity is every 2 years. Any gains from this Option trading is used to repay the “Bridge Loan Facility”

In a nutshell, the Collar Loan Facility is used as a money-generating stream to repay the Bridge Loan Facility. It all boils down to Oil Search share pricing and the purchase of a stake in Papua LNG paints a positive picture for Oil Search.